MDPI 干货分享 | 为英文学术论文写作头秃？快来Get黄金准则！
通常撰写论文前作者会“心有成竹”，即按照写作计划来创建写作的结构。结构化写作包括引言(Introduction)，文章主体(Main Body) 和结论(Conclusion)，并使用重点突出的段落来展开论证。引言(Introduction)概述了写作的主要方向，并提供了必要的背景信息和上下文。文章主体(Main Body)中，每个要点都需被完整的呈现，并对其做深入的研究和进一步探索。这些要点必须具有清晰的逻辑，并且遣词造句简洁明了，便于读者理解。结论(Conclusion)部分需要总结要点，并突出了作者希望读者获得的关键信息，还可以提出论点或观点中可以进一步开展的研究或调查。
例子：Conclusions: Embracing Multiplicity and Future Directions
In this paper we have sought to contribute to debates around urban sustainability transitions by developing a way of understanding the variability and uneveness of urban infrastructure transitions on the ground. To do this, we discussed current trends in urban transitions research, offering a synthetic account of its development. Engaging with urban sustainable mobility, we highlighted the need for extending understandings in urban transitions approaches to better connect experimentation with systems and spaces, multi-level processes of urban governance and understandings of urban sustainability.
The paper set out the multiplicity of different possibilities that each of these opens up and which, in combinations, make the potential of urban sustainable mobility almost overwhelming. To address this, we developed a preliminary framework that embraced this variability. We highlighted the need for a focus on the form of reconfiguration, informed by multiple issues in a particular city. Recognising that without some order that each reconfiguration in a different city would remain specific we developed an analytical focus on three themes of reconfiguration to bring some commonality for analysis of reconfigurations.
We are aware of both the ambition and the limits of such a framework. In the confines of a paper, our contribution has been to develop a preliminary framework for researching urban transitions that builds from an existing body of literature and engages seriously with multiple radically contested concepts. But this is a first step. The primary tension our work speaks to is between the possibilities to inform change through technological and social innovations, which are many, and the grounded and fragmented capacity and capability to be able to shape change. We have sought to build a preliminary framework that engages with this tension productively. Rather than be overwhelmed by multiplicities and variabilities we embraced this through the concept of reconfiguration. We call for future research to engage with this framework.
In setting out the framework in the paper we have not had space to discuss its application. Methodologically, there are numerous ways in which this kind of contextual reconfiguration approach could be mobilised. But in particular, this focus would benefit from theoretically-informed ethnographic work. This would seek to illuminate both forms and processes of reconfiguration in individual cities. Empirical work would seek to understand reconfigurations drawing collectively on all three themes and what they add up to in individual cities. This kind of approach could be used to understand sustainable mobility and the city but also energy, water, waste and nexus approaches that seek to integrate them. Furthermore, there would also be benefit from undertaking comparative work assessing reconfigurations between different cities. This form of comparison would allow the building of typologies of forms and processes of reconfiguration in transitions to sustainable urban mobility (or energy, waste etc.). Such typologies would also contribute empirical insights back to further conceptual modifications of the framework.
Theoretical, conceptual and empirical work is needed to strengthen understanding of these unstable categories and how they interrelate. The danger is, that this instability leads to not knowing how to research such complexity. This framework, and our call for engaging with it, seeks to contribute to countering that.
1. 表示添加更多信息: furthermore, moreover, additionally
例: This form of experimentation resonates with the concept of a niche in the MLP. There, additionally, remains the issue of how the same generic niche is differentially embedded in a particular place.
2. 表示两个相似观点比较: similarly, in comparison
例: They point out that in actuality, distinctions between types of experiments are actually much more subtle and fluid. Similarly, in their discussion of relationships between transitions management and local governance approaches JuliaWittmayer and colleagues engage with the issue of how sustainability in towns, cities and neighbourhoods is governed and how "sustainability is made meaningful locally in collaborative processes"
3. 表示相反观点: however, in contrast, yet
例: Cities, and the networked infrastructures that sustain urban life, are seen as crucial sites for creating more sustainable futures. Yet, although there are many plans, the realisation of sustainable urban infrastructures on the ground is uneven.
4. 表示结论: therefore, consequently, as a result
例: The focus of the paper, therefore, is not just about widening experimental processes but also the relationships between them and local institutional contexts and sustainability discourses shaping them.
5. 表示强调: significantly, particularly
例: What is clear is that it is often not the artefact or technology that is particularly innovative. There is nothing particularly novel and innovative about a bike or a credit card-sized piece of plastic.
6. 表示前后顺序: first, second, finally
例: First, we need to recognise that in re-shaping systems, experimental processes often cut across and reconfigure relationships between multiple systems (e.g., automobility, rail, bus, cycling). Second, a focus on both institutional concerns and processes of experimentation—rather than either—in multi-level urban governance processes is important. Third, competing conceptions of sustainability set out a range of possibilities about what kinds of infrastructure interventions are possible and desirable.
2. 句子要保持合理的长度 (通常不超过30个字) 。
英文学术论文写作首先需要做到清晰简洁 (clear)，重点突出 (focused)，结构清楚 (structured) 并且有足够的论据支撑。其首要目的是帮助读者理解。学术论文具有正式的语气 (tone) 和风格 (style)，但其遣词造句并不复杂，我们不需要使用长句子和复杂的词汇。每个学科都有一定的写作习惯和词汇，大家可以在阅读其他论文的过程中对其进行熟悉。论文结笔前，也不要忘记通读一遍，认真修改，编辑和校对文章哦。