来源:MDPI 发布时间:2021/4/9 19:07:54
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MDPI 干货分享 | 为英文学术论文写作头秃?快来Get黄金准则!

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研学之路漫漫,吾等上下而求索间,逢论文而不可怠慢。

学术论文之于科研工作,就好比札记之于旅行,一篇好的科研“札记”,不管是英文还是中文的,都是可以精炼而完整地呈现整个科研之旅,将过程与结果一一呈现在读者面前。鉴于英文版学术论文较之中文版更具挑战,因此本文将从4个方面入手,着重给大家分享如何写出一篇优秀的英文学术论文。

英文学术论文写作的特点

1. 重点清晰:回答问题并表明对该主题的理解。

2. 结构化:连贯一致,具有逻辑,并将相关的观点和材料结合起来。

3. 有证据支撑:证明对该主题领域的了解,以证据支持观点和论据,并有准确合理的引用。

4. 正式的语调和风格:使用适当的语言和时态,语言清晰,简洁。

了解了英文学术论文写作的基本特点,接下来我们从以下四点具体展开。

1. 论文的目的和目标读者的确定

学术写作的第一步是明确写作的目的和受众。通常,作者必须通过举证清楚地表明要点,并以清晰和具有逻辑的方式撰写全文,从解释作者要说的内容开始,接着阐明其观点,最后以总结结束。若学术论文中包含对他人作品的引用,这表明作者所表达的内容是建立在一定基础上,即作者阅读了其他学者的相关作品,也探索和研究过相关内容。总之,在撰写学术文章时应谨慎行事,以确保读者想要了解的内容的质与量,并注意表明文章的客观性。

2. 文章整体结构的建立

古语道:兵马未动,粮草先行。结构之于论文就犹如粮草之于兵马。

通常撰写论文前作者会“心有成竹”,即按照写作计划来创建写作的结构。结构化写作包括引言(Introduction),文章主体(Main Body) 和结论(Conclusion),并使用重点突出的段落来展开论证。引言(Introduction)概述了写作的主要方向,并提供了必要的背景信息和上下文。文章主体(Main Body)中,每个要点都需被完整的呈现,并对其做深入的研究和进一步探索。这些要点必须具有清晰的逻辑,并且遣词造句简洁明了,便于读者理解。结论(Conclusion)部分需要总结要点,并突出了作者希望读者获得的关键信息,还可以提出论点或观点中可以进一步开展的研究或调查。

例子:Conclusions: Embracing Multiplicity and Future Directions

In this paper we have sought to contribute to debates around urban sustainability transitions by developing a way of understanding the variability and uneveness of urban infrastructure transitions on the ground. To do this, we discussed current trends in urban transitions research, offering a synthetic account of its development. Engaging with urban sustainable mobility, we highlighted the need for extending understandings in urban transitions approaches to better connect experimentation with systems and spaces, multi-level processes of urban governance and understandings of urban sustainability.

The paper set out the multiplicity of different possibilities that each of these opens up and which, in combinations, make the potential of urban sustainable mobility almost overwhelming. To address this, we developed a preliminary framework that embraced this variability. We highlighted the need for a focus on the form of reconfiguration, informed by multiple issues in a particular city. Recognising that without some order that each reconfiguration in a different city would remain specific we developed an analytical focus on three themes of reconfiguration to bring some commonality for analysis of reconfigurations.

We are aware of both the ambition and the limits of such a framework. In the confines of a paper, our contribution has been to develop a preliminary framework for researching urban transitions that builds from an existing body of literature and engages seriously with multiple radically contested concepts. But this is a first step. The primary tension our work speaks to is between the possibilities to inform change through technological and social innovations, which are many, and the grounded and fragmented capacity and capability to be able to shape change. We have sought to build a preliminary framework that engages with this tension productively. Rather than be overwhelmed by multiplicities and variabilities we embraced this through the concept of reconfiguration. We call for future research to engage with this framework.

In setting out the framework in the paper we have not had space to discuss its application. Methodologically, there are numerous ways in which this kind of contextual reconfiguration approach could be mobilised. But in particular, this focus would benefit from theoretically-informed ethnographic work. This would seek to illuminate both forms and processes of reconfiguration in individual cities. Empirical work would seek to understand reconfigurations drawing collectively on all three themes and what they add up to in individual cities. This kind of approach could be used to understand sustainable mobility and the city but also energy, water, waste and nexus approaches that seek to integrate them. Furthermore, there would also be benefit from undertaking comparative work assessing reconfigurations between different cities. This form of comparison would allow the building of typologies of forms and processes of reconfiguration in transitions to sustainable urban mobility (or energy, waste etc.). Such typologies would also contribute empirical insights back to further conceptual modifications of the framework.

Theoretical, conceptual and empirical work is needed to strengthen understanding of these unstable categories and how they interrelate. The danger is, that this instability leads to not knowing how to research such complexity. This framework, and our call for engaging with it, seeks to contribute to countering that.

3. 结构化段落的使用

一篇学术论文想要条分缕析地陈述其词,必少不了运用结构化的段落布局来构建和构造论点。通常,每个段落的第一句或第二句中会明确表达作者的观点,以帮助读者理解文章逻辑。紧跟于论点句后的其余部分应更详细地解释说明论点,并在必要时提供相关论据和例子。作者对这些论据的解释将有助于证实其想法,并可以加强其论点。在段落的末尾,作者应该表明所提出的观点对整体论点的重要性或与下一段的衔接。

另外,作者还可以使用信号词来帮助读者理解文章结构以及文中可能会出现的论点,如:

1. 表示添加更多信息: furthermore, moreover, additionally

例: This form of experimentation resonates with the concept of a niche in the MLP. There, additionally, remains the issue of how the same generic niche is differentially embedded in a particular place.

2. 表示两个相似观点比较: similarly, in comparison

例: They point out that in actuality, distinctions between types of experiments are actually much more subtle and fluid. Similarly, in their discussion of relationships between transitions management and local governance approaches JuliaWittmayer and colleagues engage with the issue of how sustainability in towns, cities and neighbourhoods is governed and how "sustainability is made meaningful locally in collaborative processes"

3. 表示相反观点: however, in contrast, yet

例: Cities, and the networked infrastructures that sustain urban life, are seen as crucial sites for creating more sustainable futures. Yet, although there are many plans, the realisation of sustainable urban infrastructures on the ground is uneven.

4. 表示结论: therefore, consequently, as a result

例: The focus of the paper, therefore, is not just about widening experimental processes but also the relationships between them and local institutional contexts and sustainability discourses shaping them.

5. 表示强调: significantly, particularly

例: What is clear is that it is often not the artefact or technology that is particularly innovative. There is nothing particularly novel and innovative about a bike or a credit card-sized piece of plastic.

6. 表示前后顺序: first, second, finally

例: First, we need to recognise that in re-shaping systems, experimental processes often cut across and reconfigure relationships between multiple systems (e.g., automobility, rail, bus, cycling). Second, a focus on both institutional concerns and processes of experimentation—rather than either—in multi-level urban governance processes is important. Third, competing conceptions of sustainability set out a range of possibilities about what kinds of infrastructure interventions are possible and desirable.

诸如以上词语有助于作者构建一个更有效文章框架,有条不紊地层层深入,清晰地阐明论证的流程和逻辑。

4. 句式语态的选择

正所谓:"删繁就简三秋树",在正式的学术论文中,简洁十分重要,作者往往需要用简练的笔墨来表现丰富且具有条理的内容,以期帮助读者理解作者的观点。

在句式选择上,我们可采用以下方法:

1. 每个句子仅包含一个主要思想。

2. 句子要保持合理的长度 (通常不超过30个字) 。

3. 避免重复。

4. 避免使用多余的词。例如:

另外,在论文中使用正确的时态和语气也颇为重要。作者需要根据上下文使用不同的时态,连贯全文。

总结

英文学术论文写作首先需要做到清晰简洁 (clear),重点突出 (focused),结构清楚 (structured) 并且有足够的论据支撑。其首要目的是帮助读者理解。学术论文具有正式的语气 (tone) 和风格 (style),但其遣词造句并不复杂,我们不需要使用长句子和复杂的词汇。每个学科都有一定的写作习惯和词汇,大家可以在阅读其他论文的过程中对其进行熟悉。论文结笔前,也不要忘记通读一遍,认真修改,编辑和校对文章哦。

 
 
 
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